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Lleras, A., Buetti, S., & Xu, Z. J. (2022). Incorporating the properties of peripheral vision into theories of visual search. Nature Reviews Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1038/s44159-022-00097-1.


Lively Z, Ng GJP, Buetti S, Lleras A. (2021). Irrelevant features of distractors in intervening visual search tasks cause active visual working memory interference – the more difficult the search task, the more interference it causes. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 83(6):2410-2429.
Ng, G.J.P., Patel, T. N., Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2021). Prioritization in Visual Attention Does Not Work the Way You Think It Does. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human, Perception and Performance. 47(2):252-268. doi: 10.1037/xhp0000887.
Xu, J., Lleras, A., Shao, Y., & Buetti, S. (2021). Distractor–distractor interactions in visual search for oriented targets explain the increased difficulty observed in nonlinearly separable conditions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human, Perception and Performance, 47(9), 1274-1297.
Xu, Z., Lleras, A. & Buetti, S. Predicting how surface texture and shape combine in the human visual system to direct attention. Nature Scientific Reports, 11, 6170 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85605-8


Dolcos, F., Bogdan, P., O’Brien, M., Iordan, A. D., Madison, A., Buetti, S., Lleras, A., & Dolcos, S. (2020). Look Away and Everything will be Okay: Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Effects of Focused Attention on Emotional Evaluation. Emotion. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000895
Dolcos, F., Katsumi, Y., Bogdan, P., Shen, C., Jun, S., Buetti, S., Lleras, A., Bost, K., F., Weymar, M., & Dolcos, S., (2020). The Impact of Focused Attention on Subsequent Emotional Recollection: A Functional MRI Investigation. Neuropsychologia, 138, 107338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107338
Lleras, A., Wang. Z., Ng., G.J.P., Ballew, K., Xu, J., & Buetti, S. (2020). A target contrast signal theory of parallel processing in goal-directed search. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 82, 394-425. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-019-01928-9


Lleras, A., Wang, Z., Madison, A., & Buetti, S. (2019). Predicting Search Performance in Heterogeneous Scenes: Quantifying the Impact of Homogeneity Effects in Efficient Search. Collabra: Psychology, 5(1), 2. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.151
Buetti, S., Xu, J., & Lleras, A. (2019). Predicting how color and shape combine in the human visual system to direct attention. Nature Scientific Reports, 9, 20258, http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-56238-9 .
Ng, G.J.P., Buetti, S., Dolcos, S., Dolcos, F., & Lleras, A. (2019). Distractor rejection in parallel search tasks takes time but does not benefit from context repetition. Visual Cognition, 27(5-8),609-625. https://doi.org/10.1080/13506285.2019.1676353.


Madison, A., Lleras, A., & Buetti, S. (2108). The role of crowding in parallel search: Peripheral pooling is not responsible for logarithmic efficiency in parallel search. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80(2), 352-373.
Ng, G. J. P., Lleras, A., & Buetti, S. (2018). Fixed-target efficient search has logarithmic efficiency with and without eye movements. Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 80(7), 1752:1762
Wang, Z., Lleras, A. & Buetti, S. (2018). Parallel, exhaustive processing underlies logarithmic search functions: Visual search with cortical magnification. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25(4), 1343–1350.


Ahn, J., Patel, T. N., Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2017). Exploring the contributions of spatial and non-spatial working memory to priming of pop-out. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 79(4), 1012-1026.
Lleras, A., Chu, H., & Buetti, S. (2017). Can we ‘apply’ the findings of Forster and Lavie (2008)? On the generalizability of attentional capture effects under varying levels of perceptual load. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 23(2), 158-179.
Lleras, A., Cronin, D. A., Madison, A. M., Wang, Z., & Buetti, S. (2017). Oh the number of things you will process (in parallel)! Commentary on Hulleman & Olivers (in press). Behavioral & Brain Sciences, doi:10.1017/S0140525X16000169, e146
Shapiro, K. L., Hanslmayr, S., Enns, J. T., & Lleras, A. (2017). Alpha, beta: the rhythm of the attentional blink. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, DOI 10.3758/s13423-017-1257-0
Wang, Z., Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2017). Predicting Search Performance in Heterogeneous Visual Search Scenes with Real-World Objects. Collabra: Psychology, 3(1), 6. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.53


Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2016). Distractibility is a function of engagement, not task difficulty: Evidence from a new oculomotor capture paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(10),1382-1405
Buetti, S., Cronin, D. A., Madison, A. M., Wang, Z., & Lleras, A. (2016). Towards a better understanding of parallel visual processing in human vision: Evidence for exhaustive analysis of visual information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(6), 672-707. Doi: 10.1037/xge0000163
Panova, T., & Lleras, A. (2016). Avoidance or boredom: Negative mental health outcomes associated with use of Information and Communication Technologies depend on users’ motivations. Computers in Human Behavior, 58: 249-258.


Buetti, S., Lleras, A., & Moore, C. M. (2014). The flanker effect does not reflect the processing of “task-irrelevant” stimuli: Evidence from inattentional blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(5), 1231-1237. DOI: 10.3758/s13423-014-0602-9
Lleras, A., & Buetti, S. (2014). Not all "distractor" tags are created equal: using a search asymmetry to dissociate the inter-trial effects caused by different forms of distractors. Frontiers in Psychology, 5:669. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00669
Mereu, S., Zacks, J.M., Kurby, C. A., & Lleras, A. (2014). The Role of Prediction In Perception: Evidence From Interrupted Visual Search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4): 1372-89. doi: 10.1037/a0036646.
Michal, A., Lleras, A., & Beck, D. (2014). Relative contributions of task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions in priming of pop-out. Journal of Vision, 14(12): 14. doi:10.1167/14.12.14
Scalf, P.E., Ahn, J.W., Beck, D.M., & Lleras, A. (2014). Trial history effects in the ventral attentional network. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(12): 2789-97. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00678.
Tseng Y.-C., Glaser J.I., Caddigan E., Lleras A. (2014). Modeling the Effect of Selection History on Pop-Out Visual Search. PLoS ONE 9(3): e89996. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089996
Wan, X., Tian, L., & Lleras, A. (2014). Age-related differences in the distractor previewing effect with schematic faces of emotions. Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition, 21(4):386-410. doi: 10.1080/13825585.2013.824064


Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2013). Vision. In E. Diener & R. Biswas-Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF Publishers. DOI: www.nobaproject.com
Lleras, A., Buetti, S, & Mordkoff, J.T. (2013). When do the effects of distractors provide a measure of distractibility? In Brian R. Ross (Ed) Psychology of Learning and Motivation Vol. 59, pp, 261-315.
Mereu, S., & Lleras, A. (2013). Feelings of control restore distorted time perception of emotionally charged events. Consciousness & Cognition, 22, 306-314.
Tseng, Y. C., & Lleras, A. (2013). Rewarding context accelerates implicit guidance in visual search. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 75(2), 287-298


Buetti, S., & Lleras, A. (2012). Perceiving control over aversive and fearful events can alter how we experience those events: an investigation of time perception in spider-fearful individuals. Frontiers in Emotion Science (cross linked with Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience).
Mathewson, K. E., Prudhomme, C., Fabiani, M., Beck, D. M., Lleras, A., Gratton, G. (in press). Making waves in the stream of consciousness: entraining oscillations in EEG alpha and fluctuations in visual awareness with rhythmic visual stimulation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(12), 2321-2333. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00288.


Ariga, A., & Lleras, A. (2011). Brief and rare mental "breaks" keep you focused: deactivation and reactivation of task goals preempt vigilance decrements. Cognition, 118(3), 439-443.
Lleras, A., Porporino, M.., Burack, J. A., & Enns, J. T. (2011). Rapid resumption of interrupted search is independent of age-related improvements in visual search. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109(1), 58-72.
Mathewson, K. E., Lleras, A, Beck, D. M., Fabiani, M., Ro, T., & Gratton, G. (2011). Pulsed Out of Awareness: EEG Alpha oscillations represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing cortical processing. Frontiers in Perception Science, 2 (99), 1-15.
Wan, X., Voss, M., & Lleras, A. (2011). Age-related effects in inter-trial inhibition of attention, Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18(5), 562-576, DOI:10.1080/13825585.2011.591771


Caddigan, E., & Lleras, A. (2010). Saccadic repulsion in pop-out search: how a target's dodgy history can push the eyes away from it. Journal of Vision, 10(14).
Enns, J.T., Lleras, A., Moore, C.M. (2010). Object updating: a force for perceptual continuity and scene stability in human vision. In R. Nijhawan (Ed.) Problems of space and time in perception and action, pp. 503-520. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge:MA, USA.
Mathewson, K. E., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., Beck, D. M. & Lleras, A. (2010). Rescuing stimuli from invisibility: Inducing a momentary release from visual masking with pre-target entrainment. Cognition, 115, 186-191.
Mathewson, K. E., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., Beck, D. M., & Lleras, A. (2010). Making waves in the stream of consciousness: Elliciting predictable oscillations in visual awareness with pretarget entrainment at 12 Hz. Proceedings of the Object Perception Attention and Memory Workshop, Boston, MA, Nov. 19, 2009. Visual Cognition.
Wan, X., & Lleras, A. (2010). The Effect of Feature Discriminability on the Inter-Trial Inhibition of Focused Attention. Visual Cognition, 18, 920-944.


Ambinder, M. S., & Lleras, A. (2009). Temporal tuning and attentional gating: two distinct attentional mechanisms on the perception of rapid serial visual events. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 1495-1506.
Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2009). Focused attention is independent of rapid resumption of an interrupted search. Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 565-577.
Lleras, A., Kawahara, J., & Levinthal, B. R. (2009). Past rejections lead to future misses: Selection-related inhibition produces blink-like misses of future (easily detectable) events. Journal of Vision, 9(3):26,1-12.
Lleras, A., Levinthal, B. R., & Kawahara, J. (2009). The remains of the trial: Goal-determined inter-trial suppression of selective attention. In: Narayanan Srinivasan, editors: Progress in Brain Research, Vol 176, ATTENTION, Narayanan Srivasan. The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2009, pp. 195-213. ERRATUM: in Figure 4 (page 202), the labels on the two bars are reversed: "Target previewed" should read "Distractor previewed" and vice-versa.
Thomas, L. E., & Lleras, A. (2009a). Covert shifts of attention function as an implicit aid to insight. Cognition,111, 168-174.
Thomas, L. E., & Lleras, A. (2009b). Inhibitory tagging in an interrupted visual search. Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 1241-1250.
Thomas, L. E., & Lleras, A. (2009c). Swinging into thought: directed movement guides insight in problem solving. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 719-723.


Enns, J. T., & Lleras, A. (2008). What's next? New evidence for prediction in human vision. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 327-333.
Levinthal, B. R., & Lleras, A. (2008). Context-free inhibition: attentional biases transfer strongly across temporal and spatial search tasks. Visual Cognition, 16, 1119-1123.
Levinthal, B. R., & Lleras, A. (2008). Inter-trial inhibition of attention to features is modulated by task relevance. Journal of Vision, 8(15),1-15.
Lleras, A., Kawahara, J., Wan, X. I., Ariga, A. (2008). Inter-trial inhibition of focused attention in pop-out search. Perception & Psychophysics, 70, 114-131. ERRATUM: in Figure 5, page 126, there is a missing "0" on every value on the x axis. Values should read: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 (ms), rather than 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40.
Shin, E., Wan, X. I., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., & Lleras, A. (2008). Electrophysiological evidence of feature-based inhibition of focused attention across consecutive trials. Psychophysiology, 45, 804-811.


Bennett, J. D., Lleras, A., Oriet, C., & Enns, J. T. (2007). A Negative Compatibility Effect in Priming of Emotional Faces. Psycholonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 908-912.
Levinthal, B. R., & Lleras, A. (2007).The unique contributions of retinal size and perceived size on change detection. Visual Cognition, 15, 101-105.
Lleras, A., Rensink, R. A., & Enns, J. T. (2007). Consequences of display changes during interrupted visual search: rapid resumption is target specific. Perception & Psychophysics, 69, 980-993.
Thomas, L. E., & Lleras, A. (2007). Moving eyes and moving thought: on the spatial compatibility between eye movements and cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 663-668.
van Zoest, W., Lleras, A., Kingstone, A., & Enns, J. T. (2007). In sight, out of mind: the role of eye movements in the rapid resumption of visual search. Perception & Psychophysics, 69, 1204-1217.
von Mühlenen, A., & Lleras, A. (2007). No-onset looming motion guides spatial attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 33, 1297-1310.


Enns, J. T., Lleras, A., & Di Lollo, V. (2006). Three aspects of visual masking are informed by reentrant modeling: object substitution, feature migration, and action priming. Invited chapter in B. Breitmeyer and H. Ogmen (Eds.) The First Half Second. (pp: 127-147). MIT press. Cambridge, MA.
Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2006). How Much Like a Target can a Mask Be? Geometric, Spatial, and Temporal Similarity in Priming -- A Reply to Schlaghecken and Eimer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 495-500.
Lleras, A., & Moore, C. M. (2006). What you see is what you get: Functional equivalence of a perceptually filled-in surface and a physically presented stimulus. Psychological Science, 17, 876-881.
Simons, D., Lleras, A., Martinez-Conde, S, Slichter, D., Caddigan, E., & Nevarez, G. (2006). Induced visual fading of complex images. Journal of Vision, 6, 1093-1101.
Thomas, L. E., Ambinder, M. S., Hsieh, B., Levinthal, B., Crowell, J. A., Irwin, D. E., Kramer, A. F., Lleras, A., Simons, D. J., Wang, R. F. (2006). Fruitful Visual Search: Inhibition of Return in a Virtual Foraging Task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 891-895.


Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2005). Updating a cautionary tale of masked priming: a reply to Klapp (2005). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 436-440.
Lleras, A., Rensink, R. A., & Enns, J. T. (2005). Rapid resumption of interrupted visual search: new insights on the interaction between vision and memory. Psychological Science, 16, 684-688.
Moore, C. M., & Lleras, A. (2005). On the role of object representations in substitution masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 1171-1180.


Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2004). Negative Compatibility or Object Updating? A Cautionary Tale of Mask-Dependent Priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 475-493.
Lleras, A., & von Mühlenen, A. (2004). Spatial context and top-down strategies in visual search. Spatial Vision, 17, 465-482.
Lleras, A., Moore, C. M., & Mordkoff, J. T. (2004). Looking for the source of the Simon Effect: evidence for multiple codes. American Journal of Psychology, 117, 531-542.
Moore, C. M., Lleras, A., Grosjean, M., & Marrara, M. T. (2004). Using inattentional blindness as an operational definition of unattended: The case of a response-end effect. Visual Cognition, 11(6), 705-719.


Lleras A., & Moore C. M. (2003). When the target becomes the mask: using apparent motion to isolate the object-level component of object substitution masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 29, 106-120.
Moore, C. M., Grosjean, M, & Lleras, A. (2003). Using inattentional blindness as an operational definition of unattended: The case of surface completion. Visual Cognition, 10, 299-318.


Moore, C. M., Elsinger, C. L., & Lleras, A. (2001). Visual attention and the apprehension of spatial relations: the case of depth. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 595-606.

Last Updated: September 1, 2022
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